Monday, September 30, 2019
THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG M. SC. (ENG. ) EXAMINATIONS SUPPLY MANAGEMENT (1ELM6046) December 20, 2011 6:30 p. m. Ã¢â¬â 8:30 p. m. Answer THREE questions ONLY. Question ONE is Compulsory. Total Marks: 100 Use of Electronic Calculators: Ã¢â¬Å"Only approved calculators as announced by the Examinations Secretary can be used in this examination. It is candidates' responsibility to ensure that their calculator operates satisfactorily, and candidates must record the name and type of the calculator used on the front page of the examination script. Question 1 (Compulsory) (40 marks) Lily Pun, supply manager for King's Way College (KWC), issued an Invitation to Bid covering furnishing and installing metal lockers in the men's gym. Three responsive bids were received from reputable suppliers, ranging from $82,000 to $95,000. There was no public bid opening. Lily was concerned that Lock Manufacturing Company, which had done most of the other locker jobs for KWC, failed to bid. Expecting tha t Lock would have been the low bidder, Lily decided to find out what happened.Upon talking to Lock's sales manager, she learned that the bid request had been assigned to a new employee who had misplaced it and missed the closing date. Since Lily felt that Lock would have provided the winning bidÃ¢â¬âand certainly, any savings would help KWC's current tight budget situationÃ¢â¬âshe decided to declare all the bid prices unreasonable, cancel all bids, and re-bid the job. On the second round of bidding, a low bid of $77,000 was submitted by Lock. Lily was delighted that she had made the right decision, and proceeded to make the award to Lock. (a)Did Lily do the right thing? Was it ethical? Should she be commended for saving (10 marks) $5,000? (b) Would it have made any difference if the original bid opening had been public? (10 marks) (c) How might this look to the original bidders? Give examples to support your answer. (10 marks) (d) Discuss any similar cases happened that you kn ow and share your opinion. (10 marks) (1ELM6046 Ã¢â¬â page 1 of 2) Question 2 Burt, Dobler and Starling (2004) in their book Ã¢â¬Å"World Class Supply ManagementÃ¢â¬ suggested twelve principles leading to World Class Supply Management.In the role of a professional buyer of an organization, select FIVE principles which you think are most important and (30 marks) suggest how you may turn them into practice. Explain why. Question 3 (a) Discuss: sourcing, in-sourcing, outsourcing and strategic outsourcing. Give examples for each of them to support your answers. (15 marks) (b) What are the differences between local sourcing and global sourcing? What are the issues and challenges associated with China sourcing? (15 marks) Question 4 When should supplier appraisal be necessary? Explain why.And, propose and elaborate a (30 marks) checklist for supplier visit. Question 5 It is frequently said that supply base optimisation seems to be an effective strategy in sourcing. (10 marks) (a) Di scuss the term Ã¢â¬Å"supply base optimisationÃ¢â¬ . (b) Analyse the advantages and disadvantages of an optimised supply base. How might a (10 marks) purchaser overcome the disadvantages? (c) Comment on the criticality of having a smaller supply base before committing to a (10 marks) supplier management and development program. Ã¢â¬â End of Paper (1ELM6046 Ã¢â¬â page 2 of 2)
Sunday, September 29, 2019
How Society Functions? A society is a group of people related to each other through persistent relations such as social status, roles and social networks. It allows its members to achieve needs or wishes they could not fulfil alone. Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups and cultures. What Are the Major Functions of a Family? Major functions of a family are: To ensure that children are satisfactorily socialised into the norms and values of society. To provide economic support for other family members. To satisfy our emotional needs for love and security. To provide us with a sense of place and position in our society Functions of the Nuclear Family? Long considered the idea and norm, this consists of two parents and one or more children as opposed to multi-generational families which include grandparents. The parents provide financial support for their children and the family as a whole depends on one another for emotional support. Work is divided among members of the household according to their abilities. In general they follow societyÃ¢â¬â¢s rules as well as their family rules. Strong bonds usually develop and provide offspring with the ability to perform well in society when they leave home. The functions of the nuclear family in a traditional sense have been changing within the past 20 years as people divorce and remarry. What Is the Conflict Theory? The family conflict theory basically is where the family unit struggles for power. It is also how family members deal with adversity and change. Most of the time it is prestige and money on the basis for the most intense competitions. Name Different Types of Families? There are many different types of families. The country in which a person lives, and the cultures in this country, will determine the type of family unit that exists. For example, an American family unit is significantly different from that of a Chinese family unit. Among Americans, the type of family units will vary as well. For example, a Christian based family unit is going to be different from a Muslim family unit. Variables that may change the type of family unit also include racial, financial, educational, and other variables. Different Types of Families? The different kinds of families include nuclear families, adoptive or foster families, never married families, same sex parent families, blended families and cross-generational families. A family is a group of individuals affiliated by consanguinity, kinship, or co-residence Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Family? A main advantage of the nuclear family is that a couple has ultimate privacy. Nuclear families incur less stress and trouble when moving into a new home. There is a specific sense of freedom that gives a nuclear family the ability to live life as they wish. It is also easier to avoid stress. A disadvantage is that children are left to take care of themselves. Another disadvantage is that the feeling of safety and security is lacking. There is also not much of a support system. Disadvantages of Single Parent Families? Single parent families are families where there is only one parent to care for the children. This situation could be due to divorce, death, or abandonment. This type of family situation is not ideal and has many disadvantages compared to a traditional family. Parents in these situations often spend less time with their children, causing behaviour issues, health issues, and problems in school. Financial burdens within this type of family are also all too common. Different Types of Societies and Their Major Characteristics Bir yanÃ ±t bÃ ±rakÃ ±n To begin with, society is groups of people who live in a certain domain andÃ behave according to existing culture and morality. Culture and morality differ in terms of different parts of a society and different types of societies as well. The types have already been shaped by anthropologists and sociologists in history but there is not one certain classification. Even though almost every type is determined, there are six types of society that are accepted by the sociologists. The classification starts with hunter-gatherer society and finishes with post-industrial society and in between there is the process of development of human beings as a society. First four types, historically, are known as preindustrial societies in terms of social structure, cultural accumulation and the level of their technologies, the last two types were shaped after the industrial revolution. 1. Foraging Societies When human beings did not know how to dominate land and domesticate the animals, they had to live together, share work, use fresh water carefully and also migrate gregariously if anything went wrong, for example, if rivers dried up or they run out of animals. Usually men were hunters and women were gatherers in those societies and this caused matriarchy because men were always in danger during hunting and generally hunter members returned home -cave- with limited numbers. Labour in hunting and gathering societies was divided equally among the members because they were so small and mobile. There was not any political organization compared to understanding of todayÃ ´s diplomacy but their decision making body included every person who live in the society and equality conducted it. Certainly some foraging societies have their own tribal leaders but even the leader could not decide anything about tribe, everything in those societies was decided by all members. Their technologies were almost nothing in comparison with today but they could do what they needed, hunting big and small animals and using their hides in order to make cloths and gathering plants. Somehow they learned cultivation and they did not need to relocate anymore and they were divided into two parts as animal domesticators and plant cultivators. Both of them started to live in a certain domain. 2. Pastoral Societies In this type of societies, approximately 12,000 years ago, people lived in a certain place and started to pasture animals for transportation and permanent food. Those types of societies still exist in Somalia, Ethiopia and North Africa countries where horticulture and manufacturing are not possible (Samatar, 1989: 35), hunter-gatherer society did domesticate animals because they realized that using animalsÃ ´ wool, milk, and fertility was more beneficial than hunting and wasting them. Consequently, not only trade had started, but also non-survival class had aroused such as the spiritual leaders, healers, traders, craftspeople. This new formation held society together in a certain domain and nomadic did not migrate so far, circulate around the pasture Ã¢â¬âprimitive version of urban- and also difference of people came out for the first time; the nomadic and settled people. These are the first forms of people who live in rural and urban areas. Moreover, as they had to domesticate a nimals and use them, people need some tools and they invented what they needed. By this means technology developed rapidly. Trade improved easily and differences between nomadic and settled people grew up, consequently concept of social inequality started to appear compared to hunter-gatherer societies. 3. Horticultural Societies Similar to pastoral societies, horticultural societies first appeared 10,000 to 12,000 years ago but these societies cultivated vegetables, fruits and plants. Depletion of the landÃ¢â¬â¢s resources or dwindling water supplies, for instance, forced the people to leave. Since, they were mobile and small like hunter-gatherer societies; there was not a non-survival class and not trade as well. Division of labour continued, social structures did not develop and because of this, horticultural societies did not differ from foraging societies. They could not develop because agricultural materials invented about 8,000 years ago and they could not relocate rivers and water sources, their plants dried up. It is easily realized that why development of technology is so important and how it affects to shape societies , at the same time in the other parts of the world, people could invent and develop what they needed but for agriculture, technology was not enough. 4. Agricultural Societies What cause horticultural societies to extinguish, were the late agricultural inventions around the 8,000Ã¢â¬â¢s. With the new inventions, food supplies increased and people settled together. Population grew up rapidly, villages came up and farmers, land owners and also warriors who protect farms in exchange for food against enemies aroused firstly. In these societies, social inequality solidly showed itself. A rigid caste system developed; slavery and ownership started to be too different concepts in those lives. Caste system developed the differentiation between the elite and agricultural labourers including slaves. Lands started to be so important, especially from ninth to fifteenth centuries, after the understanding of feudalism developed, every small land owners saw themselves as kings and owners of people who live for them as well. Concept of social classes spread through the Europe and not only land owners, but also religious leaders did not have to try to survive because workers had to give them everything that they had. Art, literature and philosophy were in religious leadersÃ ´ hands because of this, time of feudalism is known as the dark ages. Due to existing monarchy, owners set up their own rules in their lands and each lord led the society with different rules and all of them depended on the King. This stratification prevented slaves from rebellion, workers were sweated and classes and inequalities in Europe continued until the industrial revolution. 5. Industrial Societies With usage of the steam power, human beings started to use machines and advanced technologies to produce and distribute goods and services. Industrial revolution process began in Britain and then spread through Europe and to the rest of the world, industrial societies started to develop. The growth of technologies led to advances in farming techniques, so slavery lost its significance, economy developed quickly and understanding of social charity and governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ aids grew up. Feudal social classes removed but then societies divided into two parts as workers and non-workers. Karl Marx explained that non-workers are composing capitalist class and they hold all money and also set up rules. Considering this explanation, it is easily understood that non-workers are the same with non-survivors like lords and religious leaders in preindustrial societies. Thus, the industrial revolution brought only the slavery extinction and there is only worker class. Learning from previous mistakes rulers gave more opportunities for social mobility and also gave more rights than they gave to the slaves. With changes in social inequalities people started to want their rights and freedom as citizens and then kingdoms and autocracy lost their power on citizens. Democracy seemed more beneficial and necessary with French and American Revolutions, nationality became more important and so, citizens won their rights and classes existed as just economic differences. Politically everyone seemed equal but, of course, inequalities between money owners and sellers of their own labours to survive, unstoppably increased. Villages lost their significance and towns became places where occupation opportunities were supplied. 6. Post-industrial Societies The countries that the industrial revolution began, -Britain, France, the USA and Japan- now became the post industrial countries. These countries are users of advance technologies like developed computers, satellites, microchips . In short, those societies are affected by the technologies at first hand. In comparison with horticultural societies it can be easily understood that how technology is important to shape and characterize a society. Since they are trailblazers of technologies, they are now holding all worldÃ ´s economy in their hands. There is not rural and urban areas difference as well as people who are economically at the top and middle. According to common view, in those societies, there is neither social inequality nor classification. People won their own freedom by working hard, if there are any differences or discrimination, this is caused by capitalist and global world, not the governmentsÃ ´ mistakes. That is, rather than being driven by the factory production of goods, society is being shaped by the human mind, aided by computer technology. Although factories will always exist, the key to wealth and power seems to lie in the ability to generate,Ã store, manipulate, and sell information. Sociologists speculate about the characteristics of post-industrial society in the near future. They predict increased levels of education and training, consumerism, availability of goods, and social mobility. While they hope for a decline in inequality as technical skills and Ã¢â¬Å"know-howÃ¢â¬ begins to determine class rather than the ownership of property, sociologists are also concerned about potential social divisions based on those who have appropriate education and those who do not. Sociologists believe society will become more concerned with the welfare of all members of society. They hope post-industrial society will be less characterized by social conflict, as everyone works together to solve societyÃ¢â¬â¢s problems through science. (Andersen & Taylor, 2006: 118) To conclude, in history, there have been very different societies in terms of their level of development, levels of inequality, political organizations and cultural factors but only those six types explain easily which stages we passed. Moreover, in todayÃ ´s world almost all types of societies exist but each of them approaches through post-industrial society even if they are not. From this research paper, it is proved that how technology is important in shaping and characterizing society among the economy, social inequalities and classes.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Barriers and solutions to international trade INTRODUCION This essay provides an overview of the barriers to international trade faced by economies today with examples of barriers faced in various countries, and their solutions. International trade promotes high standard of living for trading nations and hence, despite its various ill effects, it is best to practice international trade as it provides economic and social benefits to economies bringing about an upturn in global economy. This essay attempts to bring to light, the general barriers international trade faces presently and its solutions with recent examples. INTERNATIONAL TRADE: AN INTRODUCTION Trade among countries has existed for a long period now. The trade between Asia and Europe marks this fact as Morrison (2006, pp.314-315) examines that these two continents have engaged in Trade since a long period. He also suggests that with time, international trade has come a long way as far as volume and patterns of trade between nations is concerned. Morrison (2006) has re ferred to figures by the World Trade Organisation (2004, cited in International Trade Statistics 2003, World Trade Developments 2002) from the official website of the WTO that AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s share of global merchandise exports has gradually increased, Northern AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s share has slightly decreased and Western EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s share has recovered from a downfall in 2001, but not as much as it did in 1990. Morrison further suggests, from 2000 to 2002, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s exports and imports rose by 30 per cent and today, China is one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest traders. Therefore, we may note that International trade plays a very essential role in globalization trends in the world economy. UNDERSTANDING Ã¢â¬ËTRADE PROTECTIONISMÃ¢â¬â¢ Protectionism is Ã¢â¬ The deliberate use or encouragement of restrictions on imports to enable relatively inefficient domestic producers to compete successfully with foreign producers, or to protect and preserve those industries and producers con sidered of critical national interest.Ã¢â¬ (McCracken, 2005) Coughlin et al (1988) state that Protectionist Trade Policies are meant to improve the position of domestic products as compared to its foreign equivalents, and that this may be done through various policies Ã¢â¬â by increment of the market price of the foreign product or by barring access of foreign products to the domestic market. They explain that protectionist trade policies aim to expand domestic production in the protected industries for the benefit of the owners, suppliers and workers of the protected industry. However this may lead to a downturn in the consumption of protected goods due to either associated rise in its price or consumers start using less of other goods as a result of the decline in outputs and increase in prices. Coughlin et al hence, argue that domestic consumers are said to be impaired as the price of the protected goods keep increasing. Hence, imposing of tariffs lead to domestic producers Ã¢â¬â¢ and the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s gain, while domestic consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ and other domestic producersÃ¢â¬â¢ loss. These trade policies also affect foreign interests. Ã¢â¬ËFREE TRADEÃ¢â¬â¢ & ITS THEORIES Free Trade is Ã¢â¬ trade between nations that is unhampered by Government constraints such as tariffs, restrictions, and other barriers.Ã¢â¬ (Financial Times Limited, 2009) Theory of Absolute Advantage
Friday, September 27, 2019
HR practice and consultance - Term Paper Example The study will be based upon the consultancy process of the HRM. It will evaluate the Ã¢â¬Ëgaining entry to the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢ and other aspects in the hiring process. Different kinds of approaches of the consultancy process will be evaluated and discussed which will best suit the organisation. Overview Consultancy Process Human resource professionalÃ¢â¬â¢s most important task is related to hiring of the employees along with other job responsibilities. In the HR process, finding the right candidate or qualified applicant for a particular job, filling the vacancy, upgrading the positions, creating new job, promoting employees and other necessary activities are the vital parts for the selection of the right applicant (University of Virginia, 2010). In order to get a clear understanding about the consultancy process, it would be better to take up a particular organisation. For this purpose the UK based multinational company, BP Plc, has been considered. It is a multi-national organisation that operates in the oil, gas and energy industry globally. There are thirty strategic performing units and other specialist support functioning departments. There are problems faced by the BP Plc such as shortage of professionals in the energy sector. Without appropriate number of personnel in this sector, it will be hard to uplift the future. Skilful and expert personnel are required. This gap can be bridged with the appropriate consultancy process that will assist in providing framework for the entry to the organisation (BP PLC, 2010). Entry to the Organisation The entry to the organisation is the initial phase in any consulting process. During this phase the interaction between the applicant and the HR manager takes place, where the HR tries to acquire knowledge about the applicant as much as possible. The outcomes of the consulting, discussion, and the planning phase are then presented in the consulting contract. The signature of the applicant with the HR manager c oncludes the initial phase (Kubr, M & International Labour Office, 2002). In the phase of distinctive consulting intervention, the client and consultant execute a set of activities that are necessary for the achievement of desired changes and purposes. The activities that are involved are generally known as the Ã¢â¬Ëconsulting processesÃ¢â¬â¢. The process is well defined and has clear beginning and end which assist in relationship building. Between the initial phase and the end phase, there are several phases that aid both the client and the consultant to be methodical and systematic, from operations to operations proceeding from one phase to another (BSC, 2002). Processes or Phases of the Consultancy Process There are various phases or ways of subdividing the consultancy process that are found generally in different kind of literatures by various authors. There are many instigators who have provided several phases in the process that range from three to ten. For the BP Plc, whi ch is an organisation belonging to the energy sector; a simple five-phase model would be suitable that consists of the Ã¢â¬Å"comprising entry, diagnosis, action planning, implementation and terminationÃ¢â¬
Thursday, September 26, 2019
DRIVING WITH STRESS - Essay Example Of course driving while stressed (and the stress does not just have to be from the traffic) has a lot of psychological factors and implications involved. This is what is often labelled as traffic psychology .The study of this area allows us to explain our driving reactions and behaviours more rationally .When we are driving the vehicle becomes an extension of our body and our thoughts and frustrations start leaking out in the way we operate the vehicle. For example using the car horn constantly and driving the steering wheel aggressively mean that there is some pent up anger or stress with in our minds and bodies. Trying to overtake other people's cars may mean that deep inside we are resenting the stress in some other part of our lives where there is possible we resent being dominated. "Perceived control was a significant negative predictor of state driver stress in high traffic congestion, and it approached significance as a negative predictor of state stress in the low congestion condition. Occupational stress only predicted state driver stress in low traffic. ... No gender differences in state driver stress were found."3 As humans we react differently to different social situations and then develop explanations for their actions and reactions. Every time we are faced with a decision or any kind of an encounter or interaction the mind starts adopting itself to our situation and thus we suffer from stress from new situations which our brain is not programmed to process. Driving stress is one of the reasons for such lapses in the programmed line of thought when an intervening act like the incidental cues we need to pick up in traffic challenge us. There are a number of factors which may define the reasons for our reactions in times of stress. Stress is dangerous for drivers as it may kill or cause accidents or further bodily disorders. What is necessary for the drivers is to use coping strategies to eliminate or counter "driver stress". What is "Driver stress" then Driver stress is defined by increased "aggression and alertness, a dislike of driving, and frustration and irritation elicited by interaction with other road-users, in particular in relation to overtaking. It is associated with life stresses and health and emotional problems and affects the driver's road safety."4 According to academics an analysis of the reasons for fatigue and stress amongst drivers reveals that there are multiple factors like the distance travelled, or sleeping disorders, worry and emotional stress, related to work or to life events; or road rage5. Psychological and medical analysts suggest that stress is not always a product of fatigue and the two are very much different. It also has to be noted is that stress is not always brought on
Hiring practices IP2 - Assignment Example t process is fair and without discrimination, a manager should ensure that all activities included review the skills that suit a certain job and that they are consistent with each applicant and not to specific applicants only. As a human resource person, I would recommend that the manager use the guidelines while conducting an interview to hire a marketing representative for our company. The objective of every interview is to acquire relevant information and provide a conducive and friendly environment for the applicants, therefore, the interviewing panel should avoid asking unnecessary and uncomfortable questions (Tunstall, 2010). Such questions include: 8. Do you have any outstanding debt? The interviewer should have a legal permit to ask about the intervieweesÃ¢â¬â¢ credit background. Without the permit, he cannot ask such a question since it can affect the applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in a certain
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Managerial economics and strategic analysis - Essay Example Hays (2004) estimates that about 70 % of the sales volume for the Company comes from outside the United States and about 80% of the profits comes from non American countries. Coca cola Company is therefore one of the Companies with most presence in the world, which is attributed to the fact that the soft drink; Coca Cola is widely available globally and has become the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite soft drink (Hays, 2004). According to Dess (2012), the successful implementation of a CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy requires effective strategic control. Control is in the form of behavior and how information is used. In order to cater for the interests of the two key players in a Company, that is the shareholders and the managers, a Company must ensure that these interests are aligned (Dess, 2012). This can be achieved through establishing corporate governance. Globally, the soft drink market is dominated by three Companies; the Coca Cola, CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Schweppes and Pepsi Cola Companies. Coca Cola laid claim to about 47% of the global market with Pepsi Cola following at 21 % and Schweppes at 8%. In aligning the interests of the Company shareholders and managers, Coca Cola separated the Company separated itÃ¢â¬â¢s ownership from its control. This was made possible through the employment of managers to run the Company on behalf of the owners. The company employs the use of incentives intended for its managers to facilitate the achievement of the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. The control of governance mechanisms has been successfully achieved through the use of external auditors who check the Company books regularly to ensure that the financial information disclosed by the Managers is accurate and in doing so; protect the owners from financial risks (Dess, 2012). The Company is also subject to external regulatory bodies that check for the quality of their product and control the standards of these products. These bodies ensure that the consumer gets a product that fits their needs
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Impacts of Globalization on Apple Inc - Essay Example One of the most successfully recognized global organizations that recognized the relevance of globalization is Apple Inc. In this regard, the current research aims to examine the actual and potential impacts of globalization on the organization through a comprehensive examination of the factors that led to the decision. The discourse would hereby be structured through providing the relevant theoretical framework for the globalization, prior to delving into the corporate background and profile of Apple Inc. Subsequently, the impact of globalization would be expounded as applied by Apple in terms of presenting the changes it made on the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s market share, competition, and the strategies designed and implemented for globalization efforts to succeed. Globalization As emphasized by Riggs (2000), the concept of globalization has been studied to reveal that it has many meanings and dimensions. Figure 1: Globalization has Many Meanings Source: Riggs 1998, 2 Business practiti oners could simply attempt define globalization as a process of expanding operations abroad. However, like the evolution in contemporary organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ structure, the concept and definition of globalization goes beyond the traditional view of doing business in another country or beyond international waters. In a study conducted by Al-Rodhan (2006), globalization was intricately defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a process that encompasses the causes, course, and consequences of transnational and transcultural integration of human and non-human activitiesÃ¢â¬ (Al-Rodhan 2006, 2). By transnational, Lee Iwan, a professional with extensive cultural and international experiences described its meaning as corporations that Ã¢â¬Å"have invested in foreign operations, have a central corporate facility but give decision-making, R&D and marketing powers to each individual foreign marketÃ¢â¬ (Iwan 2007, 1). As indicated by Riggs (2000) on his key concepts of globalization, the dimensions of globali zation are: Ã¢â¬Å"Economics: globalization = trade, money, corporations, banking, capital Political science: globalization = governance, war, peace, IGOs, NGOs, regimes Sociology: globalization = communities, conflict, classes, nations, agreements Psychology: globalization = individuals as subjects and objects of global action Anthropology: globalizaton = cultures overlapping, adapting, clashing, merging Communications: globalization = information as knowledge and tools -- INTERNET Geography: globalization = everything, provided it can be anchored in spaceÃ¢â¬ (Riggs: Dimensions, 1998, par. 2). Figure 2: Dimensions of Globalization Source: Riggs, 1998, p. 5 These dimensions were validated by Al-Rodhan (2006) when he emphasized that Ã¢â¬Å"globalization involves economic integration; the transfer of policies across borders; the transmission of knowledge; cultural stability; the reproduction, relations, and discourses
Monday, September 23, 2019
Persecution of Muslims in Burma - Essay Example She remained under house arrest for almost 21 years. However, she was released in 2010 and everybody shifted their focus from Burmese politics to other matters. Burma again caught the attention of humanists all over the world recently because of the ongoing ethnic violence against the minority Muslims by the government and the Buddhists. Majority of the people in Burma are Buddhists even though Muslims constitute a substantial portion of Burmese population. Ã¢â¬Å"The Muslim minority in Myanmar mostly consists of the Rohingya people and the descendants of Muslim immigrants from India and China, as well as descendants of earlier Arab settlersÃ¢â¬ (Persecution of Muslims in Burma, 2012). It should be noted that financial abilities of majority of the Muslims in Burma are better than the majority Buddhists. This is because of their prominence in business and trades. Buddhists are not at all interested in watching the minority Muslims gaining progress in Burmese politics and business. As a result of that they started violence against Rohingya people to expel them from Burmese territories. Ã¢â¬Å"Credible reports available online suggest that Ã¢â¬Å"It began on 3rd June 2012 when 11 Muslims were killed by the Burmese Army and the Buddhist mobs after bringing them down from a busÃ¢â¬ (Hyderi, 2012). Since then hundreds of Muslims forced to sacrifice their lives in front of the fury generated by the Buddhists. One of the most surprising fact about this violence is the stand taken by the humanist and Burmese opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi. Even though neutral observers all over the world expected Aung to condemn this incidents, to their utmost surprise, she justified these massacres. Ã¢â¬Å"Myanmar Noble Peace Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi says she will not back the minority of Rohingya Muslims that have been persecuted and killed by the majority BuddhistsÃ¢â¬ (Myanmar's Suu Kyi says she can not back Rohingya Muslims, 2012). This paper analyses the details of t he prosecutions of Muslims in Burma. Why prosecutions of Muslims in Burma are happening? Ã¢â¬Å"The Myanmar government and its majority population refuse to recognize Rohingya Muslims as citizens and label the minority of about 800,000 as illegal immigrants from neighbouring Bangladesh, an impoverished state that has shown no willingness to help the RohingyasÃ¢â¬ (Myanmar's Suu Kyi says she cannot back Rohingya Muslims, 2012). It is a fact that there are plenty of Muslim states in the proximity of Burma. Pakistan and Bangladesh are Muslim dominated countries whereas IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s northern state Kashmir is also a Muslim dominated state. People from these Muslim states are crossing the borders of Burma and settling in Burma. This process started in the past and continued until recent times. As in the case of other countries, the internal resources are getting reduced in Burma also because of the over exploitation and population growth. Burmese people or the Buddhists do believe th at the illegal immigrants or the Muslims are looting their resources. That is why they started violence against the Muslims recently. They argue that Burma is for Burmese people or for Buddhists; not for illegal immigrants or Muslims. Majority of the Burmese people and the administration believe that all the Muslim population in Burma are illegal immigrant
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Fried Green Tomatoes Essay I chose to critique the film Fried Green Tomatoes. I wanted to show that this film is about two friendships between four women that prove that when you find that person that is your best friend, you find the best in yourself. This film was released in 1991. It was based on the book, Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe by Fanny Flagg. Ms. Flagg was also the one who wrote the screenplay as well. The movie is filmed in the present, which would have been 1990-ish, where we meet Evelyn Couch who is visiting a nursing home with her husband, Ed. She meets a lonely old woman Cleo Threadgoode, whom everyone calls Ninny, and they begin talking. Ninny shares a story with Evelyn about Idgie Threadgoode and Ruth Jamison, taking place in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s and the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. We see dual storylines here. The first in the present with Evelyn and Ninny and then the story of Idgie and Ruth in the past, both of them being told chronologically but at different periods of time. In the first, or establishing shot, we hear a train whistle and the camera pans over a ghost town and eventually stopping at a run-down building that says The Whistle Stop Cafe. Watching this movie, I found myself laughing, then crying and then laughing and feeling happy. I found myself relating to the characters, most of them in one way or another which was a good feeling. I saw the insecurity in Evelyn, the way that she is so passive and shy. She is very naive. She is trying to get her husband to pay attention to something other than sports on television. He comes home from work, picks up his dinner that has been set on the table, grabs a beer and then he sits in his chair and ignores her. The stubbornness of Idgie, she is one that does what she wants, when she wants and wonÃ¢â¬â¢t follow the rules, even if they are in her best interest. The quiet strength of Ruth, she can be the most kind and ladylike woman, but when it comes to her child or her best friend, she is willing to do anything to keep them safe. The carefree Ninny, who does not seem to have ever met a stranger, may be old, but is very direct and lovable. I think that through the movie we see that within each set of friends, that in the beginning there is one that is shy and passive and then other is outspoken and extroverted. As their friendships grow, they balance each other out. Evelyn becomes more self-confident and assertive, with her husband for example. Ninny learns that you are never too old to find your best friend. Idgie learns how to let people into her heart, and teaches Ruth how to think for herself and gives her courage to leave her abusive husband. Ruth tries to tame IdgieÃ¢â¬â¢s wild ways and Idgie discovers that she has someone that she can be herself with. All of these things are so very important. The protagonists in this film; Evelyn, Ninny, Idgie, and Ruth each face their own form of enemy or antagonist. For Evelyn, it is her poor self-image. For Ninny, it is her longing to go home. Idgie in this particular point in time is facing the court that is trying her for murder. Ruth faces her abusive husband. All of these things each threaten to hold each of these women back. This film falls into two different genres; drama and comedy. There is no love story, no fight scenes, nothing explodes. It is the story of friendship and with that you have tears and laughter, like in real life. The film is set in the fictional town of Whistle Stop, Alabama and in Valdosta, Georgia. You can hear the southern twang in the accents of the characters that would suggest the southern descent. The score contains several southern gospel, blues, and then some soft pop ballads, but throughout the movie the sound of a train whistle is prevalent both in the presence of a train and without. The use of a train is vital to the film. The train is where Idgie and Ruth have their first Ã¢â¬Å"adventureÃ¢â¬ stowing away in a train car containing food and throwing that food to needy families along the track. The train is present during the important moments in the film; when we first see Evelyn, BuddyÃ¢â¬â¢s death, the birth of RuthÃ¢â¬â¢s son, Frank BennettÃ¢â¬â¢s murder, when we are told of RuthÃ¢â¬â¢s cancer. There is voice over from Ninny when we go from the present to the past. We hear her talk about the past and then there is a fade out and then in. These are often used at the beginning and/or end of a scene or sequence as a sort of punctuation mark, fading into a shot from a black screen or fading to black at the end, like bringing the lights up or down during a stage play (Goodykoontz 2011). Other sounds in the movie are used to let audience be aware of the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s surroundings. For example, when Idgie goes to the stump to get the honey, we hear the buzzing of bees, or scenes from the cafe you can hear things sizzling and cooking. The four main actors in this film are; Kathy Bates/Evelyn, Jessica Tandy/Ninny, Mary Stuart Masterson/Idgie, and Mary Louise Parker/Ruth. Imdb1991) They are all wild card actors, which made this film enjoyable to watch. With no one typecast into any certain role, you could not predict how one was going to act or do. It made it easier to picture these actors in the roles that they played here. Each actor was well chosen to play each role. The personalities of the actors fit with the persona lities of the character of the story. When I read the book now, I see Kathy Bates when I read about Evelyn and Mary Louise Parker when I read about Ruth. It makes the story more enjoyable, I think when I can read it and watch along in my head. The clothing worn depicts the time period very well. We know that it is warm by the way that people are dressed; light flowing dresses and simple pants and shirts with the sleeves rolled up. The hairstyles also compliment the time; hair up and pinned or put up softly so that some curls flow for the women and the men had very short and well kept hair. Those men who had hair kept it slicked back or in a traditional curl. Everyone in the past storyline seems to constantly wear a gleam of sweat if they appear outdoors. Only in the present-day storyline are we able to measure time, and that done here with holidays. In the beginning we see Evelyn bringing a basket of candy to her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s aunt. Then we see different decorations in the nursing home, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, and ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day. The past is different because Ninny is telling the story so she says when things happen so we are not left to guess for ourselves. The lighting in this film is tied to the mood of the particular scene. The sun shines when things are good and happy. When Frank comes to take the baby away, it is a tense scene and is shown with dark lighting and lots of shadows. It gives a menacing tone. When there are deaths, the lighting is dull and sorrowful, and even the weather is a factor. During the more somber scenes, it is cloudy and rainy which gives a sense of sadness to the already dismal part of the storyline. A normal lens was used to shoot this movie as the scenes are shot as if one was seeing them with their own eyes. The effect that this film has on society is that it presents a realistic and classic view of friendship that people can in some way relate to. It has a great deal of fiction in regards to the storyline. But there are some parts that have a bit of truth to them. The matter of racism, given the time period, is portrayed as it has been documented in history books. The presence of the Ku Klux Klan is another piece of our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s history. Not a great one, but still a true one. The film is directed, produced, and written by Jon Avnet, who is credited with such films as The War and Up Close and Personal. Mr. Avnet worked with author Fannie Flagg to write the screenplay. This story may have Ã¢â¬Å"chick flickÃ¢â¬ written all over it but one should not be fooled, there is more to this film than just four chicks laughing and crying together. There is, of course, the story of friendship, but there is mystery, there is a bit of our dark history, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a murder and then there is food. Fried green tomatoes and the best barbeque you ever hadÃ¢â¬ ¦the secretÃ¢â¬â¢s in the sauce.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Tea Party Movement Demetrius Zissimos Following the 2008 economic crisis, a wave of anger flushed throughout the U.S. creating to separate groups, both upset and both clamoring for a change. The Tea Party Movement, a movement founded by a large majority of elder conservatives, a conservative middleclass and large amount of upper class Americans disgruntled with government power and taxes, and the Occupy Wall Street movement, founded by a majority of a younger liberal crowd upset at the power of corporations and their control over the government, were born. Both ideologies gained a large following as they gathered in cities all over the U.S. and in the case of OPW (Occupy Wall Street) all over the world. Both demanded change, using social media and modern technology to their advantage. Yet although there may be a few similarities within their frustrations with the government, they are separated by vast differences found in their ideologies, methods, membership, approval rating, and overall impact within the political syst em. The Tea Party at its core claims to protest foremost the size and power of the government. It states that the government is too large and its taxing of the people has become out of control. These taxes, as a lot of the members within the Tea Party would argue, are only used to fund government programs that are really handouts given to those who are merely taking advantage of the system. Yet at the same time, a large amount of the Tea PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s population are elderly, and thus rely heavily on government programs like social security and Medicare. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to understand how a group can argue against the government social programs, while taking advantage of such programs themselves. Their justification for what most would call a double standard also gives light into more topics that fit into the Tea PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s platform. They explain that they earned the usage of such social programs after working in the U.S. and paying taxes for so long. Their issue with the other socia l programs is that the government is helping people who do not benefit society, making illegal immigrants a large majority of the Ã¢â¬Å"peopleÃ¢â¬ mentioned. This hostility towards illegal immigration amplifies a distrust against the Obama administration, who they claim to be way too lax on the issue. At this point, the hostility against immigrants attracts a certain kind of intense and overzealous crowd to the movement, one easily described as opinionated and very racist. The far right conservatives joined the movement, those who focused on certain ideas that are extreme to say the least. Such examples are the claims made by the Tea Party that Obama is a terrorist, was not born in the U.S., and is actually Muslim despite his public talks of being a Christian. This blind hatred is unfortunately a common theme, spurred on as government leaders like Sarah Palin speak as leaders for the movement. Including their blind allegations against President Obama, Tea Party politicians have a history of extreme and controversial thoughts that have given the movement a reputation of racist and extremist conservatives and served equally as a publicity stunt used to gain as much attention as possible. Especially concerning womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and rape, Tea Party politicians have been quoted making outrageous statements that cost them seats in government positions. The Tea Party has history of relying on extreme and insensitive statements to gain attention and gain a following of hardcore conservatives who blindly follow anyone that hits a particular point they feel to be underrepresented. Evidence is found in their Ã¢â¬Å"15 Non-negotiable Core BeliefsÃ¢â¬ , which involve Ã¢â¬Å"English is our core language,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Illegal aliens are here illegally,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Traditional family values are encouraged.Ã¢â¬ (2) These traditional family values normally involve stripping women of the right to control their own bodies, even under extreme conditions, and are a large attraction by the extremist, normally sexist conservative. These few examples of core beliefs show a movement that is so focused on gathering followers that it loses track of what the movement actually started as, toning down government spending, taxes and power. This creates a stark difference compared to Occupy who manages to keep a relatively focused mission of a few core beliefs, instead of casting a broad net to get any followers they can. Such extremism is a huge difference between the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street because although Occupy took extreme measures of showing anger, they first off never created a political party, and second of all are not quoted having such extreme view points as those in the Tea Party. Occupy consists of a membership made up mainly of a younger crowd than that of the Tea Party, with three general stereotypes used to define its membership, middle class liberal Americans, hipsters, and unemployed college graduates. These three groups find a common ground speaking out against the relatively light taxing of the rich compared to the middle class, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to investigate and punish corporations and their executives that caused the 2008 collapse and speak for a reform of the system of financing in which politicians rely on large corporations in order to gain political power. Although Occupy is upset with the federal government like the Tea Party, their main enemies are large faceless corporations. These corporations are not being held responsible for their reckless actions that affect the Ã¢â¬Å"99 percent.Ã¢â¬ The movement claims to speak against the one percent of the population that holds a huge majority of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth, and rules unfairly over the rest of the country, coining the term the Ã¢â¬Å"99 percentÃ¢â¬ or the majority of the people. This idea of the majority would likely align the movement with ideals of MillÃ¢â¬â¢s liberalism, although they also share similarities with Marxism in their conflict of the one percent, who could be seen as the bourgeoisie, and the 99 percent or the proletariatsÃ¢â¬â¢, and the small revolution they committed by publicly organizing and disrupting Wall Street. But ideologically, Liberalism is the best fit for Occupy as both speak for the rule by the majority the 99 percent. Also both see that the government has a role of protecting the majority, something that Occupy argues the government did not do. The Tea Party can also find similarities with MillÃ¢â¬â¢s Liberalism, in that both have government holding very little power. Although the Tea Party is not really considered with the wide majority, they do argue for certain Ã¢â¬Å"libertiesÃ¢â¬ like gun control. Marxism however is a hard fit for the Tea Party, as both have very little in common. In regards to Fascism, both Occupy and the Tea Party are on opposite ends of the spectrum, as neither want a complete control by the government, and Fascism is strictly against the rule of the majority. Although Occupy Wall Street had an altogether more effective protest force than the Tea Party (Estimates put the largest protest for Occupy Wall Street at over 1.4 million people in 950 cities in 84 countries, and the largest Tea Party protest at 311,460 people in 346 cities.(1)), Occupy didnÃ¢â¬â¢t create its own political party like the Tea Party did. This hurt the movement, in that it became mostly focused as a movement and ideology, without much of a political impact. Even though the Democratic Party has shown small influences from Occupy in their speeches, very little can actually be proven to be done by the movement politically, while the Tea Party has had a more impactful political career. The Tea Party is credited to bringing more attention and energy back to the Republican Party after the 2008 presidential elections. Although the Tea Party didnÃ¢â¬â¢t gain any real traction in the government, it can be argued that the Republican party has adopted a few of the issues firs t argued by the movement, although those issues are very watered down, and try to avoid the extremist views of the Tea Party movement. But Occupy still holds a better public opinion, as 54 % of people have shown agreement with Occupy, while 20% of the population has shown agreement with the much more extreme Tea Party(1), a fact that can be explained through the extreme statements that the Tea Party used as a claim to fame. Yet to its benefit, Occupy Wall Street has a message that has reached not only a large population in the U.S. but also in other countries. It can be argued as well that Occupy never meant to gain a true political following, as they kept a relatively vague mission statement, and never had true leadership taking the reins. The 2008 economic collapse was an event that spurred an angry population into action, action that eventually involved millions of people, all of whom were unified by a common cause. Whether they were following the radical views of the Tea Party, or aiming for a more protected majority like Occupy, both movements have had everlasting effects, not only on the political spectrum but also within the people. Both movements while separate in following, ideology and overall methods both share the common ground of being vehicles to show displeasure against a government that has become distanced from those it is mean to protect. This cause at its core is admirable and American to its foundation as we are a country born of civil disobedience and protest against a government that takes advantage of its people. Work Cited: Brownsend, Jeremy. Occupy Wall Street (OWS) vs The Tea Party: A Brief Comparison. (n.d.): n. pag. Fact and Myth. 3 Feb. 2014. Web. 4 Nov. 2014. About Us Tea Party. Tea Party. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2014. Skocpol, Theda, and Vanessa Williamson. Perspectives on Politics. The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. 1st ed. Vol. 9. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2012. N. pag. Mar. 2011. Web. 4 Nov. 2014. Ray, Michael. Tea Party Movement. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 12 June 2014. Web. 4 Nov. 2014. Sledge, Matt. Reawakening The Radical Imagination: The Origins Of Occupy Wall Street.The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 10 Nov. 2011. Web. 02 Nov. 2014. Murray, Mark. The Tea Party, Four Years Later.NBC News. NBC News, 16 Apr. 2013. Web. 05 Nov. 2014. Sorkin, Andrew Ross. Occupy Wall Street: A Frenzy That Fizzled.Occupy Wall Street A Frenzy That Fizzled. New York Times, 17 Sept. 12. Web. 05 Nov. 2014.